A review of carbon labeling: standards, implementation and impact

Lead author: Tiantian Liu       Year: 2016       Methodology: Literature review

Publication Abstract

With increased acknowledgment of global climate change and warming, governments, consumers, and firms are responding collectively to create today's low-carbon economy. Carbon footprint labeling has developed as a meaningful instrument to motivate greenhouse gas emission reductions. This paper reviews existing research and implementation examples to understand the development of carbon labeling. This includes discussing the evolution of the carbon labeling concept, and different measurement methodologies and standards for carbon labels. These methods and standards include life cycle assessment, Public Available Standard 2050, Greenhouse Gas Protocol, and International Organization for Standardization 14067. The review also considers carbon label implementation in different countries and the potential impacts of carbon labeling schemes. The paper closes with recommendations for carbon label implementation, summarizing the advantages and drawbacks of carbon labeling approaches. Governments, consumers, and firms may use this review to adjust their strategy for future carbon label implementation.


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  • Publication type:

    • Journal article
  • Other authors:

    • Tiantian Liu
    • Qunwei Wang
    • Bin Su