Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia

Lead author: Kimberly Carlson       Year: 2018      

Publication Abstract

Many major corporations and countries have made commitments to purchase or produce only "sustainable" palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Sustainability certification is the tool most used to fulfil these procurement policies, and around 20% of global palm oil production was certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in 2017. However, the effect of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations re-mains unclear. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of RSPO-certified and noncertified oil palm plantations (∼188,000 km2) in Indonesia, the leading producer of palm oil, as well as annual re-motely sensed metrics of tree cover loss and fire occurrence, to evaluate the impact of certification on deforestation and fire from2001 to 2015. While forest loss and fire continued after RSPO certification, certified palm oil was associated with reduced deforestation. Certification lowered deforestation by 33% from a counterfactual of 9.8 to 6.6% y−1. Nevertheless, most plantations contained little residual forest when they received certification. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Broader adoption of certification in forested regions, strict requirements to avoid all peat, and routine monitoring of clearly defined forest cover loss in certified and RSPO member-held plantations appear necessary if the RSPO is to yield conservation and climate benefits from reductions in tropical deforestation.


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  • Publication type:

    • Journal article
  • Other authors:

    • Kimberly Carlson
    • Robert Heilmayr
    • Holly Gibbs
    • Praveen Noojipady
    • David Burns
    • Douglas Morton
    • Nathalie Walker
    • Gary Paoli
    • Claire Kremen
  • Countries:

    • Indonesia