Has forest certification reduced forest degradation in Sweden?
This paper estimates the effects of certification of nonindustrial private forest owners on forest degradation in Sweden-one of the countries with the largest total area of certified forests. We rely on official forest inventory data, information on certification status, and impact evaluation methods to identify the causal effect of certification on three key environmental outcomes. We find that certification has not halted forest degradation in that it has not improved any of the environ-mental outcomes. Moreover, for forest certification to have an effect, the standards should be tightened and the monitoring and enforcement of forest certification schemes strengthened.
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- Journal article
- Laura Villalobos
- Jessica Coria
- Anna Nordén