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Journal article
Rational Incompatibility with International Product Standards

2001 | Christopher Barrett

International product standardization enables traditional, price-based competition. But the existence of redesign costs or network effects creates market frictions that diminish the incentive to standardize if there already exists a different technology in an established market. This leads to multi-...

Institutional publication
Regionalism in Standards: Good or Bad for Trade?

2005 | Maggie Xiaoyang Chen

Regional agreements on standards have been largely ignored by economists and unconditionally blessed by multilateral trade rules. It is theoretically and empirically found that such agreements increase trade between participating countries but not necessarily with the rest of the world. Adopting a c...

Institutional publication
Regional approaches to better standards systems

2006 | Enrique Aldaz-Carroll

Developing countries face an increasing need to upgrade the standards of their domestic markets and of their exports. This paper examines different approaches available to them for upgrading their standards and conformity assessment procedures. It focuses particularly on those followed within the co...

Journal article
International Process Standards and North-South Trade

1999 | Perroni, Carlo

This paper examines the choice between alternative trade‐based approaches to reducing global environmental damage, such as trade‐related process standards and tariff‐based approaches. Estimates of the effects of alternative policies are presented, using a calibrated global trade model with pollution...

Institutional publication
Quantifying the Impact of Technical Barriers to Trade; A Framework for Analysis

2000 | Keith Maskus

There has been increasing use of technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in the context of multilateral, regional, and global trade. These nontariff barriers are of special concern to developing countries, which may bear additional costs in meeting mandatory standards. Many industr...

Book
Standards and Global Trade: A Voice for Africa

2003 | John Wilson

The book provides information, and guidance for policymakers, the development community, and others in the critical area of "behind the border" barriers to trade. With a view to promoting efforts to strengthen Africa's capacity to meet trade standards, and comply with technical regulations, the book...

Institutional publication
Standards and Sustainable Trade: A Sectoral Analysis for the Proposed Sustainable Trade and Innovation Centre

2000 | Bill Vorley

In the search for alternative markets in face of globalisation, the export of environmentally friendly and socially preferred goods and services from the South is increasingly sold as a developmental ‘win-win-win’, providing trade opportunities which can simultaneously alleviate poverty and protect ...

Conference materials
Standards and conformity assessment in trade: minimising barriers and maximising benefits

2005 | OECD

A compilation of submissions to the Workshop and Policy Dialogue organized under the auspices of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour and Inwent (Capacity Building International, Germany) in Berlin, Germany on 21-22 November 2005...

Institutional publication
The Cost of Compliance with Product Standards for Firms in Developing Countries: An Econometric Study

2005 | Keith Maskus

Standards and technical regulations exist to protect consumer safety or to achieve other goals, such as ensuring the interoperability of telecommunications systems, for example. Standards and technical regulations can, however, raise substantially both start-up and production costs for firms. For th...

Journal article
Standards and Trade Performance: the UK Experience

1996 | Peter Swann

This paper analyses the effects of standards on UK trade performance. The results suggest that UK strength in standards improves the UK trade balance, but can also act to make the UK market more open. The results also contradict two common views of the effects of standards: first, that standards act...

Institutional publication
Quantifying the Trade Impact of Compatibility Standards and Barriers: An Industrial Organization Perspective

2000 | Neil Gandal

The goal of this paper is to help set a research agenda for examining the effect of compatibility barriers to trade. The paper explores the relationship between compatibility standards and international trade flows from an industrial organization perspective. I provide a brief survey of the literatu...

Institutional publication
Standards and Technical Regulations and Firms in Developing Countries: New Evidence from A World Bank Technical Barriers to Trade Survey

2004 | John Wilson

The use of standards and technical regulations as instruments of commercial policy in unilateral, regional, and global trade contexts has increased as tariff and quota barriers continue to decline (Maskus and Wilson, 2001). Standards and technical regulations are principally used to mitigate food, a...

Journal article
The Impacts of Innovations and Standards on Trade of Measurement and Testing Products: Empirical Results of Switzerland's Bilateral Trade Flows with Germany, France and the UK

2001 | Knut Blind

Nowadays, the impact of the measurement and testing infrastructure on economic performance and trade is theoretically and even politically widely accepted. However, there are no empirical studies on this issue. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the impact of innovative capacity and technical...

Conference materials
The Role of Standards for Trade in Services: First Insights

2006 | Knut Blind

Cross-border trade of Services has attracted the attention of industry, policymakers and academia. Whereas the trade of goods has been well analysed both from the theoretical and empirical perspective, investigations into the trade of Services are only beginning. In particular, the complex influence...

Journal article
Trade and the Impact of Innovations and Standards: The Case of Germany and the UK

2005 | Knut Blind

The effects of patents as indicators for innovations and standards on German trade performance are analysed in general and German–British trade in detail. The latter analysis goes a step further than the approach of Swann et al. (1996) and is based on a broader and more detailed database. The result...

Other
The Impact of Innovation and Standards on German-French Trade Flows

2005 | Andre Jungmittag

The paper analyses the effects of patents as indicators for innovations and standards on the German-French trade flows. The results show that primarily Germany's innovative capacity can explain its export performance in France and not its strength in standards. Second, the stocks of international st...

Institutional publication
What are the Right Institutions in a Globalizing World? And…. Can We Keep Them If We've Found Them?

2004 | World Bank

Greater trade integration has often been viewed as requiring greater standardization in institutions, without which the benefits of trade do not materialize. There are many current debates concerning the degree and area of standardization needed and these debates are likely to continue for the fores...

Journal article
Assessing the benefits of ethical trade schemes for forest dependent people: comparative experience from Peru and Ecuador

2002 | Valerie Nelson

In this paper we consider the social impact of ethical trade schemes, particularly the kinds of benefits ethical trade provides for smallholder farmers and their livelihoods and for sustainable forestry. We focus on two cases, which are linked to the fair trade movement: brazil nuts collected from f...

Journal article
The Role of Public and Private Standards in Regulating International Food Markets

2007 | Spencer Henson

While much of the focus of the economics literature has been on the role of public food safety and quality standards both as policy instruments and as non-tariff barriers to trade, it is evident that private standards are playing an increasing role in the governance of agricultural and food supply c...

Member publication
Global Perspectives on Standardization: Lessons from the European Union, The United States and Australia

2014 | Standards Council of Canada

The 17-page report highlights SCC’s two-day strategic exchange held April 14-15, 2014, with its U.S., European and Australian counterparts. Global Perspectives brings together the views of several distinguished leaders of the international standards community, on how standardization supports regiona...