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Journal article
The Role of Public and Private Standards in Regulating International Food Markets

2007 | Spencer Henson

While much of the focus of the economics literature has been on the role of public food safety and quality standards both as policy instruments and as non-tariff barriers to trade, it is evident that private standards are playing an increasing role in the governance of agricultural and food supply c...

Journal article
Is eco-certification a win-win for developing country agriculture? Organic coffee certification in colombia

2016 | Marcela Ibanez

According to advocates, eco-certification is a win–win solution to the problem of environmental degradation caused bydeveloping country agriculture, improving both the environmental and the economic performance of farmers. However, these notionalbenefits can be undercut by the tendency of relatively w...

Journal article
Voluntary sustainability standards could significantly reduce detrimental impacts of global agriculture

2018 | William Smith

Voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) are stakeholder-derived principles with measurable and enforceable criteria to promote sustainable production outcomes. While institutional commitments to use VSS to meet sustainable procurement policies have grown rapidly over the past decade, we still have ...

Journal article
Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

2017 | Ruth DeFries

Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifyin...

Journal article
Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

2017 | Ruth Defries

Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifyin...

Journal article
What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

2016 | Angelina Bellamy

Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and env...

Journal article
Methodological complexities of product carbon footprinting: a sensitivity analysis of key variables in a developing country context

2010 | Katrina Plassmann

Product carbon footprinting schemes adopt different analytical methodologies. The calculations can also be affected by limited data availability and uncertainty surrounding the value of key variables. The combination of these factors reduces the validity of comparing carbon footprints between produc...

Journal article
Comparing voluntary sustainability initiatives and product carbon footprinting in the food sector, with a particular focus on environmental impacts and developing countries

2018 | Katharina Plassmann

Two types of private voluntary standards used in the food sector are analyzed in this article. Namely, sustainability initiatives that encourage best practice management on farms for environmental, social and economic gains, and also product carbon footprints (PCFs) that estimate the climate impact ...

Journal article
Effects of fair trade certification on social capital: the case of Rwandan coffee producers

2012 | Sara Elder

Fair Trade certification may have important social effects on small-scale producers but empirical evidence is limited. We conducted logistic regressions using data from a 2009 survey of Rwandan coffee farmers to estimate the link between Fair Trade and social capital—measured as farmer trust and par...

Journal article
The role of fair trade certification for wages and job satisfaction of plantation workers

2018 | Katharina Krumbiegel

Worker welfare and employment conditions in the agri-food-producing and processing sectors in the global south have become an increasing concern for consumers. Sustainability standards, such as Fairtrade, play an important role in agri-food markets of horticultural produce and may be a tool to addre...

Institutional publication
Assessing the impact of sanitary, phytosanitary and technical requirements on food and agricultural trade: what does current research tell us?

2013 | Sofia Boza

This paper reviews empirical studies that have investigated how SPS/TBT measures impact trade in the food and agricultural sector. The author concludes that research supports the existence of a 'dual effect' of SPS-TBT measures on international trade of food and agricultural products, wit...

Journal article
The effects of Fair Trade on affiliated producers: an impact analysis on Kenyan Farmers

2008 | Leonardo Becchetti

We analyse the impact of fair trade (FT) affiliation on monetary and non-monetary measures of well-being in a sample of Kenyan farmers. Our descriptive and econometric findings document significant differences in terms of varieties of products sold, price satisfaction, monthly household food consump...

Journal article
Sustainability standards, gender, and nutrition among smallholder farmers in Uganda

2016 | Brian Chiputwa

Sustainability standards are gaining in importance in global markets for high-value foods. While previous research has shown that participating farmers in developing countries may benefit through income gains, nutrition impacts have hardly been analysed. We use survey data from smallholder coffee fa...

Institutional publication
Labels, Food Safety and International Trade

2017 | Norbert Wilson

This paper reviews existing research on labels and food safety standards (both private and public) and their effects on food and agricultural trade. It argues that perceptions and empirical evidence around the impacts of standards have shifted from principally negative to more mixed results. Accordi...

Institutional publication
Product Standards and Firms' Export Decisions

2015 | Ana Fernandes

This paper examines the importance of standards in influencing whether firms in developing countries export opportunities agricultural and food products. Overall, the authors demonstrate that more stringent SPS standards in importing markets have a negative effect on developing country firm expor...

Journal article
Private sustainability standards and child schooling in the African coffee sector

2020 | Kevin Akoyi

Private sustainability standards are spreading rapidly in global value chains, especially in the coffee sector, and commonly aim at promoting environmental, economic and social sustainability. The social sustainability component is often overlooked in studies on the impact of private standards. In t...

Journal article
Private standards, trade and poverty: GlobalGAP and horticultural employment in Senegal

2012 | Colen Liesbeth

There is a growing body of literature that analyses the implications of private food standards for developing countries. Most of this literature has focused on the trade effects of standards and on the effects on exporters and producers. Very few studies have looked at the effect of standards for wo...

Institutional publication
Food Safety Standards: Economic and Market Impacts in Developing Countries

2014 | Laurian Unnevehr

Compliance with public and private food safety standards has been the subject of increasing attention. Much of the literature on impacts of food safety regulation in developed countries focuses on public health. In poorer countries, the emphasis is on economic development. How standards shape access...

Institutional publication
Impact of Food Safety Standards on Processed Food Exports from Developing Countries

2009 | Juthathip Jongwanich

This paper analyses the impacts of food safety standards on processed food exports in developing countries using a cross-sectional econometric analysis. The empirical analysis shows that strict food safety standards in importing developed countries tend to be trade reducing for developing countries ...

Book
Standards and Global Trade: A Voice for Africa

2003 | John Wilson

The book provides information, and guidance for policymakers, the development community, and others in the critical area of "behind the border" barriers to trade. With a view to promoting efforts to strengthen Africa's capacity to meet trade standards, and comply with technical regulations, the book...