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Journal article
What is in a label? Rainforest-Alliance certified banana production versus non-certified conventional banana production

2016 | Angelina Bellamy

Export banana production in Latin America is pesticide intensive, receiving much negative publicity regarding human health problems and environmental degradation. The Rainforest Alliance (RA) certification scheme was established to certify farms that met a number of social, occupation health and env...

Journal article
Methodological complexities of product carbon footprinting: a sensitivity analysis of key variables in a developing country context

2010 | Katrina Plassmann

Product carbon footprinting schemes adopt different analytical methodologies. The calculations can also be affected by limited data availability and uncertainty surrounding the value of key variables. The combination of these factors reduces the validity of comparing carbon footprints between produc...

Institutional publication
Saving Two in a Billion: A Case Study to Quantify the Trade Effect of European Food Safety Standards on African Exports

2000 | Tsunehiro Otsuki

A growing concern over health risks associated with food products has prompted revisions in sanitary and phyotsanitary standards in industrialized countries. This paper quantifies the impact of standards on aflatoxins implemented by the EU on food exports from African countries. We employ a gravity-...

Institutional publication
Assessing the impact of sanitary, phytosanitary and technical requirements on food and agricultural trade: what does current research tell us?

2013 | Sofia Boza

This paper reviews empirical studies that have investigated how SPS/TBT measures impact trade in the food and agricultural sector. The author concludes that research supports the existence of a 'dual effect' of SPS-TBT measures on international trade of food and agricultural products, wit...

Institutional publication
Labels, Food Safety and International Trade

2017 | Norbert Wilson

This paper reviews existing research on labels and food safety standards (both private and public) and their effects on food and agricultural trade. It argues that perceptions and empirical evidence around the impacts of standards have shifted from principally negative to more mixed results. Accordi...

Institutional publication
Product Standards and Firms' Export Decisions

2015 | Ana Fernandes

This paper examines the importance of standards in influencing whether firms in developing countries export opportunities agricultural and food products. Overall, the authors demonstrate that more stringent SPS standards in importing markets have a negative effect on developing country firm expor...

Journal article
Can private food standards promote gender equality in the small farm sector?

2018 | Eva-Marie Meemken

Agricultural commercialization can help to lift subsistence farmers out of poverty, but can also have adverse effects on gender equality. We explore whether private food standards – with their particular elements to regulate production and trade – could serve as a vehicle to promote gender equality ...

Journal article
Trade barriers or trade facilitators? The heterogeneous impact of food standards in international trade

2019 | Hege Medin

This study presents a theoretical foundation to support the "dual face of standards", a term referencing the heterogeneous impact of standards on international trade. It also provides new empirical data on the impact of food standardization for Norwegian seafood export, with as main result that whi...

Institutional publication
Food Safety Standards: Economic and Market Impacts in Developing Countries

2014 | Laurian Unnevehr

Compliance with public and private food safety standards has been the subject of increasing attention. Much of the literature on impacts of food safety regulation in developed countries focuses on public health. In poorer countries, the emphasis is on economic development. How standards shape access...

Institutional publication
Impact of Food Safety Standards on Processed Food Exports from Developing Countries

2009 | Juthathip Jongwanich

This paper analyses the impacts of food safety standards on processed food exports in developing countries using a cross-sectional econometric analysis. The empirical analysis shows that strict food safety standards in importing developed countries tend to be trade reducing for developing countries ...

Journal article
Comparing voluntary sustainability initiatives and product carbon footprinting in the food sector, with a particular focus on environmental impacts and developing countries

2018 | Katharina Plassmann

Two types of private voluntary standards used in the food sector are analyzed in this article. Namely, sustainability initiatives that encourage best practice management on farms for environmental, social and economic gains, and also product carbon footprints (PCFs) that estimate the climate impact ...

Journal article
Standards-as-Barriers versus Standards-as-Catalysts: Assessing the Impact of HACCP Implementation on U.S. Seafood Imports

2009 | Sven Anders

The paper analyses the effects of the US implementing mandatory seafood (HACCP) food safety standards on export partners. The authors first review existing empirical literature on food safety and the potential impact of increased food safety standards on international trade and the seafood market. ...

Conference materials
Standards and conformity assessment in trade: minimising barriers and maximising benefits

2005 | OECD

A compilation of submissions to the Workshop and Policy Dialogue organized under the auspices of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour and Inwent (Capacity Building International, Germany) in Berlin, Germany on 21-22 November 2005...

Journal article
The Role of Public and Private Standards in Regulating International Food Markets

2007 | Spencer Henson

While much of the focus of the economics literature has been on the role of public food safety and quality standards both as policy instruments and as non-tariff barriers to trade, it is evident that private standards are playing an increasing role in the governance of agricultural and food supply c...

Journal article
The Role of Public and Private Standards in Regulating International Food Markets

2007 | Spencer Henson

While much of the focus of the economics literature has been on the role of public food safety and quality standards both as policy instruments and as non-tariff barriers to trade, it is evident that private standards are playing an increasing role in the governance of agricultural and food suppl...

ISO methodology
ISO Methodology Case Study: Baltika Breweries, Russian Federation

2013 | ISO

This is a case study conducted to determine the economic benefits. The enterprise chosen for the study, is Baltika Breweries, Russia's leading beer brand. It has a market share of 38.2 % and is one of the largest, fastest-moving consumer goods companies. The study focuses on five business functions:...