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Journal article
Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

2017 | Ruth Defries

Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifyin...

Journal article
The impact of fair trade on social and economic development: a review of the literature

2008 | Ann Le Mare

This article explores the outcomes of Fair Trade for producers, artisans and their organisations. It asks the question, ‘what happens to people who are involved in Fair Trade?’, and reviews the case studies and empirical research conducted on Fair Trade for a range of products in different countries...

Journal article
Trading off nutrition and education? A panel data analysis of the dissimilar welfare effects of Organic and Fairtrade standards

2017 | Eva-Marie Meemken

Millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries participate in different types of sustainability standards. A growing body of literature has analyzed the welfare effects, with mixed results. Yet, there are important knowledge gaps. First, most existing studies have looked at the effects of o...

Journal article
Effects of fair trade and organic certifications on small-scale coffee farmer households in Central America and Mexico

2010 | Ernesto Mendez

We provide a review of sustainable coffee certifications and results from a quantitative analysis of the effects of Fair Trade, organic and combined Fair Trade/organic certifications on the livelihood strategies of 469 households and 18 cooperatives of Central America and Mexico. Certified household...

Journal article
The economics of fair trade

2014 | Raluca Dragusanu

Fair Trade is a labeling initiative aimed at improving the lives of the poor in developing countries by offering better terms to producers and helping them to organize. Although Fair Trade–certified products still comprise a small share of the market—for example, Fair Trade–certified coffee exports ...

Journal article
Fair Trade coffee: Building producer capacity via global networks

2004 | Laura Raynolds

This study looks at the experiences of seven coffee producer cooperatives in Latin America with Fair Trade certification, and the benefits they received. Through comparative analysis, the authors find that coffee organizations, communities and producers derive important material and non-material ...

Journal article
Fairtrade and workers' welfare: A case study of the soccer industry in Pakistan

2019 | Javeria Abbasi

The resurgence of the debate on standardization of labor laws via trade has brought into focus the importance of labeling programs, which are seen as a desirable avenue to remedy weak labor laws in the “South.” This study aims to quantify the impact of the Fairtrade labeling program on the welfare p...

Journal article
Effects of fair trade certification on social capital: the case of Rwandan coffee producers

2012 | Sara Elder

Fair Trade certification may have important social effects on small-scale producers but empirical evidence is limited. We conducted logistic regressions using data from a 2009 survey of Rwandan coffee farmers to estimate the link between Fair Trade and social capital—measured as farmer trust and par...

Journal article
The role of fair trade certification for wages and job satisfaction of plantation workers

2018 | Katharina Krumbiegel

Worker welfare and employment conditions in the agri-food-producing and processing sectors in the global south have become an increasing concern for consumers. Sustainability standards, such as Fairtrade, play an important role in agri-food markets of horticultural produce and may be a tool to addre...

Journal article
Fairtrade, certification, and labor: global and local tensions in improving conditions for agricultural workers

2014 | Laura Raynolds

This study looks at the impact of Fairtrade on labour rights using a case study in the flower production undustry in Ecuador. The analysis highlights how tensions between the traditional market (rooted in competition, efficiency and standardization) and alternative domestic and civil conventions ...

Journal article
Does Fair Trade Deliver on its core value proposition? Effects on income, educational attainment and health in three countries

2009 | Eric Arnould

Alternative trade organizations (ATOs) based on philosophies of social justice and/or environmental well-being are establishing new channels of trade and marketing. Partisans promote ATOs as systems to transfer benefits from consumers in the wealthy northern hemisphere to producers in the poor south...

Journal article
The effects of Fair Trade on affiliated producers: an impact analysis on Kenyan Farmers

2008 | Leonardo Becchetti

We analyse the impact of fair trade (FT) affiliation on monetary and non-monetary measures of well-being in a sample of Kenyan farmers. Our descriptive and econometric findings document significant differences in terms of varieties of products sold, price satisfaction, monthly household food consump...

Journal article
Fair Trade-Organic coffee cooperatives, migration and secondary schooling in Southern Mexico

2012 | Seth Gitter

This article provides an integrated theoretical and empirical strategy for exploring the impacts of three changes in Mexico (namely changing economic opportunities, migration and conditional cash transfers) on secondary school attainment. Relevant to our review is the discussion of the expansion of...

Journal article
Impacts of Fair Trade-certification on Coffee Farmers, Cooperatives and Laborers, in Nicaragua

2008 | Joni Valkila

This paper analyzes the possibilities and challenges of Fair Trade certification as a movement seeking to improve the well-being of small-scale coffee growers and coffee laborers in the global South. Six months of fieldwork was conducted in 2005–2006 to study the roles of a wide range of farmers, la...

Journal article
The effect of fair trade affiliation on child schooling: evidence from a sample of Chilean honey producers

2013 | Leonardo Becchetti

We evaluate the impact of Fair Trade (FT) affiliation on child schooling within a sample of Chilean honey producers with a retrospective panel data approach. From a theoretical point of view, we argue that FT should have a positive effect on child schooling since it generates a short-run pure income...