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Journal article
Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

2017 | Ruth Defries

Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifyin...

Journal article
Effects of fair trade and organic certifications on small-scale coffee farmer households in Central America and Mexico

2010 | Ernesto Mendez

We provide a review of sustainable coffee certifications and results from a quantitative analysis of the effects of Fair Trade, organic and combined Fair Trade/organic certifications on the livelihood strategies of 469 households and 18 cooperatives of Central America and Mexico. Certified household...

Journal article
Effects of fair trade certification on social capital: the case of Rwandan coffee producers

2012 | Sara Elder

Fair Trade certification may have important social effects on small-scale producers but empirical evidence is limited. We conducted logistic regressions using data from a 2009 survey of Rwandan coffee farmers to estimate the link between Fair Trade and social capital—measured as farmer trust and par...

Journal article
Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

2017 | Ruth DeFries

Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifyin...

Journal article
Reviewing the impacts of coffee certification programmes on smallholder livelihoods

2017 | Joshua Bray

Certification programmes and voluntary standards for sustainability are now a commonfeature of many agricultural landscapes worldwide. The rapid expansion of such programmes has only recently been accompanied by concerted attempts to assess the lived experience of enrolled producers. This article re...

Journal article
The economics of fair trade

2014 | Raluca Dragusanu

Fair Trade is a labeling initiative aimed at improving the lives of the poor in developing countries by offering better terms to producers and helping them to organize. Although Fair Trade–certified products still comprise a small share of the market—for example, Fair Trade–certified coffee exports ...

Journal article
Assessing the benefits of ethical trade schemes for forest dependent people: comparative experience from Peru and Ecuador

2002 | Valerie Nelson

In this paper we consider the social impact of ethical trade schemes, particularly the kinds of benefits ethical trade provides for smallholder farmers and their livelihoods and for sustainable forestry. We focus on two cases, which are linked to the fair trade movement: brazil nuts collected from f...