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Journal article
Rational Incompatibility with International Product Standards

2001 | Christopher Barrett

International product standardization enables traditional, price-based competition. But the existence of redesign costs or network effects creates market frictions that diminish the incentive to standardize if there already exists a different technology in an established market. This leads to multi-...

Other
International agreements on product standard: an incomplete contracting theory

2003 | Pierpaolo Battigalli

We propose a theory of international agreements on product standards. The key feature of the model is that agreements are viewed as incomplete contracts. In particular, these do not specify standards for products that may arise in the future. One potential remedy to contractual incompleteness is a d...

Institutional publication
The Cost of Compliance with Product Standards for Firms in Developing Countries: An Econometric Study

2005 | Keith Maskus

Standards and technical regulations exist to protect consumer safety or to achieve other goals, such as ensuring the interoperability of telecommunications systems, for example. Standards and technical regulations can, however, raise substantially both start-up and production costs for firms. For th...

Institutional publication
Assessing the impact of sanitary, phytosanitary and technical requirements on food and agricultural trade: what does current research tell us?

2013 | Sofia Boza

This paper reviews empirical studies that have investigated how SPS/TBT measures impact trade in the food and agricultural sector. The author concludes that research supports the existence of a 'dual effect' of SPS-TBT measures on international trade of food and agricultural products, wit...

Institutional publication
Product Standards and Firms' Export Decisions

2015 | Ana Fernandes

This paper examines the importance of standards in influencing whether firms in developing countries export opportunities agricultural and food products. Overall, the authors demonstrate that more stringent SPS standards in importing markets have a negative effect on developing country firm expor...

Journal article
Product Standards, Harmonization, and Trade: Evidence from the Extensive Margin

2007 | Ben Shepherd

This paper provides empirical support for the view that international harmonization can reduce possible negative impacts of product standards on developing country exporters. It focuses on the extensive margin of trade (new products), asking whether harmonization can promote an increase in export va...

Institutional publication
Food Safety Standards: Economic and Market Impacts in Developing Countries

2014 | Laurian Unnevehr

Compliance with public and private food safety standards has been the subject of increasing attention. Much of the literature on impacts of food safety regulation in developed countries focuses on public health. In poorer countries, the emphasis is on economic development. How standards shape access...